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Demonstrative pronouns

Normal pronouns simply represent something. For instance, if I was talking about some guy called Bob, I might say something like:

He is a nice guy.

In this situation ‘he’ represents ‘Bob’. But demonstrative pronouns specifically point to what they are representing. For instance, if I was talking about how taxes were going down:

This is a good thing.

‘This’ specifically points to taxes, rather than just representing them.

There are a few types of demonstrative pronouns. Some are used to point to things that are close to you physically or in time or the subject of the sentence, like ‘this’ and ‘these’. Using ‘this’ or ‘these’ is personal.

These chips are not tasty at all.

To talk about things that are farther away, either in time or physically, you might use the pronouns ‘that’ or ‘those’. Using ‘that’ or ‘those’ is less personal - it seems like the thing you’re pointing to is not as close:

That person is not nice.

Those chips are not tasty at all.