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These punctuation symbols are known as parentheses, not as brackets.

When you want to include some extra information in a sentence but not draw too much attention to it, use parentheses:

David (the guy we met yesterday) will be coming to dinner tonight.

Like any other punctuation mark, there are rules for how to use parentheses. If the parentheses are in the middle of a sentence, don’t use a period at the end of the material inside them, and don’t capitalise the first letter. You can, however, put other punctuation marks like question marks or exclamation points, at the end of the phrase inside the parentheses:

David (he was the guy who yelled at us!) will be coming to dinner tonight.

If there is a complete sentence inside the parentheses, it can be made into its own sentence. If this happens, we need to capitalise the first letter of the first word, and end the sentence with a period or any other appropriate punctuation (you could also use a question mark or an exclamation point). The punctuation at the end of the sentence goes inside the closing parenthesis.

David will be coming to dinner tonight. (He’s the guy who we met yesterday.)